First, breathing may be related to higher levels of energy, improved attention (Telles et al., 2011), increased available neural resources (Joshi and Telles, 2009), vigor and alertness (Zaccaro et al., 2018), while meditation is usually related to serenity (calmness of mind and body) and relaxation (Koopmann-Holm et al., 2013; Jones et al., 2018; Philips et al., 2019). For example, your session might be 5 minutes long or it might be 40. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2015 Oct;13(10):21-9. doi: 10.11124/jbisrir-2015-2380. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. We hypothesize that breathing-focused yoga practice would be more effective than meditation-focused yoga to promote work intention (1a), and mindfulness (1b), and to reduce stress perception (1c). El Morr C, Ritvo P, Ahmad F, Moineddin R; MVC Team. 17YJA890009). Articles. Keywords: This review indicated that mindfulness meditation is an effective strategy for preventing and managing the workplace stress and burnout, which so often plague nursing staff and students. UMW has offered students a meditation and mindfulness course since 2013. XQ conducted the experiment. Students practiced how the simple act of creating space for the tongue between their teeth could reduce jaw, neck, and shoulder tension. Many previous yoga researches focused on a designated group of age and sex (such as middle-aged women, adolescence, undergraduates, see Quach et al., 2016; Philips et al., 2019). Students were directed to do meditations in the meditation-focused yoga group (“Please adjust your posture and close your eyes…Imagine some pictures you like…Gaze at the picture in details and keep focused…Draw back your attention when realizing you get distracted…Feel your inner calm state…”) while doing breathing in the breathing-focused yoga group (“Please adjust your posture and close your eyes…Keep breathing slowly and deeply…Observe your own breathing deep into your chest, into your abdomen…Feel the movement of diaphragm and abdomen wall and the extension of the spine…Visualizing the breath moving up and down and in and out your body…Feel the temperature of our breath in and out…Feel the steady rhythm of smooth breathing…”) during Stage 1 for each class. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0231-6, Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Pimley, S., and Novacek, J. Furthermore, a few researches have simultaneously compared the functions of meditation and breathing as yoga components (Ross et al., 2012). Four classes were randomized to meditation-focused yoga or breathing-focused yoga. Two ways for students to practice mindfulness. Moreover, there are evidences for potential differences between meditation and breathing in literature such as the levels of energy (Joshi and Telles, 2009; Zaccaro et al., 2018), attention, and practice difficulty (Brown and Gerbarg, 2009). Figure 3. Conscious Cogn. Joshi and Telles (2009) found that high-frequency yoga breathing improved selective attention and that breath awareness increased available neural resources by examining event-related potentials (i.e., the P300). Saoji et al. (2019). Based Complement Altern. Neurosci. Despite the usefulness of meditation and breathing, prior research suggests that they may function differently in influencing mental health outcomes such as energy (Joshi and Telles, 2009; Zaccaro et al., 2018) and attention (Brown and Gerbarg, 2009). doi: 10.1007/s10484-016-9340-2, Wheeler, E. A., Santoro, A. N., and Bembenek, A. F. (2019). Only one study to our knowledge has compared between these yoga practices (Wheeler et al., 2019), which found that yoga manipulation (i.e., poses, breathing, meditation, or listening to a lecture about yoga) was equally effective in reducing anxiety and improving mood but did not affect responses to stressors in a group of yoga novices. UMW has offered students a meditation and mindfulness course since 2013. Res. The login page will open in a new tab. Mindfulness is one of the most popular meditation techniques. NCHS Data Brief. J. Altern. Results from the pre-post training MANCOVA revealed significant group differences with a median effect size [Wilks’ lambda, Λ = 0.90, F(3, 80) = 3.10, p = 0.031, η2 = 0.104]. Moreover, age and/or sex were found to be significantly related to outcomes of work motivation (Boumans et al., 2012), mindfulness (Edwards, 2019), and stress (Folkman et al., 1987). Sudarshan Kriya Yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression. Fam. Complement Med. Moreover, breathing may be more practical and is related to vigor and alertness (Zaccaro et al., 2018), while meditation may be not easily learned and practiced for undergraduates (Brown and Gerbarg, 2009). To characterize the meaning of these interactions, marginal means of the models were estimated for each group at pre and post measures, as shown in Figures 1–3. Since higher energy levels and mindfulness can help people decrease stress (Tong et al., 2020), breathing-focused yoga practice may be also better to reduce stress than meditation in a group of yoga novices. Major findings are: (1) Students in the breathing-focused yoga group reported significant increase in mindfulness and significant decrease in stress, while students in the meditation-focused yoga group reported significant decrease in work intention; (2) Students in the breathing-focused yoga group had significant higher work intentions and mindfulness and had marginally less stress than students in the meditation-focused yoga group at post-intervention. J. Yoga 10, 138–144. Mindfulness was measured by Brown and Ryan’s (2003) 15-item Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale on a seven-point scale ranging from 1 (never) to 7 (always). Biofeedb. Clarifying the associations between mindfulness meditation and emotion: daily high- and low-arousal emotions and emotional variability. Meditation can be defined in many ways. Explore (NY). Am. Work intention refers to a guide to purposeful action as it is a mental representation of the behavior an employee chooses to manifest (Ajen and Fishbein, 1980). Conclusion: (2017) showed that yoga breathing reduced aggression, improved mindfulness, and emotion regulation in undergraduate students. Psychol. More and more schools offer meditation as part of their students’ regular schedules. A study conducted in an Italian primary school found that mindfulness meditation was reported to have helped in reducing attention challenges and reducing the children’s internalizing of problems. Mindfulness can easily be woven into many modalities and can be offered as regular classes, workshops, seminars, or one-on-one sessions. It is well-suited for those who have some degree of mindfulness experience. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. What is mindfulness meditation? To conduct a fair comparison, the participants would be requested to breathe at a low rate similar to mediation, but breathing deeply into the abdomen, and pursue and develop awareness of in-and-out breathing (Brown and Gerbarg, 2009). Available at: (Accessed November 27, 2004). Positive Effects of a Stress Reduction Program Based on Mindfulness Meditation in Brazilian Nursing Professionals: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation. Prior research has shown that yoga postures and movements can reduce depression (Carter and Byrne, 2004), but meditation and breathing may be more important to other mental health outcomes including stress and mood (Wheeler et al., 2019), sustained attention (Schmalzl et al., 2018), working memory capacity (Quach et al., 2016) posttraumatic stress disorder, hyperarousal symptoms of sleep disturbance, flashbacks, or anger outbursts (Carter and Byrne, 2004). Once again mindfulness comes to the rescue! J. There were 27–32 students in each class. Age, pain intensity, values-discrepancy, and mindfulness as predictors for mental health and cognitive fusion: hierarchical regressions with mediation analysis. It may be due to the time for the post-training survey was in the end of a normal semester, and students were busy coping with the final exams. Maniuk T, Mok G, Schouela N, Thurgur L, Ho M, Fischer L, Syed S. CJEM. A comparative randomised controlled trial of the effects of brain wave vibration training, iyengar yoga, and mindfulness on mood, well-being, and salivary cortisol. Health 58, 2277–2287. Pract. Table 2. (1998) found that yoga breathing functioned as effectively as medical treatment for dysthymic disorder. A Two Year Study of the use of Yoga in a Series of Pilot Studies as an Adjunct to Ordinary Psychiatric Treatment in a Group of Vietnam War Veterans Suffering From Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. For healthcare professionals, mindfulness meditation is claimed to reduce stress, anxiety and burnout, and enhance resilience. Numerous studies have documented that mindfulness meditation programs are useful for reducing anxiety, however, the mechanisms were unknown. A total of 46 participants from two yoga classes were designated into the breathing-focused yoga group, while 40 participants from the other two yoga classes were designated into the meditation-focused yoga group. This script would be well-suited for a follow-up reflection period. Med. The effect of movement-focused and breath-focused yoga practice on stress parameters and sustained attention: a randomized controlled pilot study. A final consideration to make is the chance that strong emotions will come to the surface. (2003). Most undergraduate students have little to no experience of practicing yoga exercise, and they are considered a vulnerable population for mental health (Balon et al., 2015). Design: Methods: A 12-weeks yoga intervention was conducted among a group of undergraduate students enrolled in four yoga classes at an academically prestigious university in Beijing, China. Meditation and yoga for posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. Consider the use of candles, music, and compassionate communication to build this. PLoS One. Didgeridoo sound meditation for stress reduction and mood enhancement in undergraduates: a randomized controlled trial. Recovery from stress: an experimental examination of focused attention meditation in novices. The attendance rate for all sessions was 100%. Participants were asked to dress in comfortable clothing and avoid a meal after getting up before attending the class. Through a variety of meditation sessions—available four … 10, 144–156. After logging in you can close it and return to this page. 8:551. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00551, Ross, A., Friedmann, E., Bevans, M., and Thomas, S. (2012). The age and experience level of your students will help you to determine the appropriate length of your meditation. 84, 822–848. doi: 10.1007/s10943-013-9679-0, Telles, S., Maharana, K., Balrana, B., and Balkrishna, A. Building Confidence for Social Settings and Meeting New People, Giving Kindness to Your Mind and Thoughts, Instantly download all of our best worksheets, categorized by 8 topics, Includes writable fields to write your reflections, answers and journal entries, Organized by meditation, health, relationships, career, self-discovery, purpose and more. The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/Supplementary Material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author. Psychol. Pranayama: Its Philosophy and Practice. Soc. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Future research may use other ratings or biological indicators such as cortisol and event-related potentials (P300) to better support the function of individual yoga components. JT, XZ, and SC analyzed the data. A sample item is phrased as “please indicate how much you want to continue completing the remaining survey right now.” The reliabilities are αs = 0.97 and 0.98 for pre- and post-interventions, respectively. The final number of papers included in the review was 16. Besides biological impacts, breathing, as an important component of yoga practice, can bring upon dramatic psychological and mental benefits. Therapeutic efficacy of sudarshan kriya yoga (sky) in dysthymic disorder.