xxx., compare the laws in india before independence and after independance., for how many years finaicial coporation is . Not all are devotees of Murukan, though many may go to His temple and pray to Him. A more restricted view is that only the Ettuttogai and some of the Pattuppattu belong to this age. 5.  The first has roots in the Hindu deity Shiva, his son Murugan, Kubera as well as 545 sages including the famed Rigvedic poet Agastya. He lists six anthologies of Tamil poems (later a part of Ettuttokai):, These claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses Kumari Kandam have been dismissed as frivolous by historiographers. Murukan saved and protected the devas from the tortures of the asuras by killing Curan and the flying mountain Krauncam, by smashing it with his Vel. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Tamil_Nadu, Iron Age burial site found near Tiruvannamalai. , The available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. 6, 8, 11 ,20). [note 1], According to Zvelebil, within the myth there is a kernel of reality, and all literary evidence leads one to conclude that "such an academy did exist in Madurai (Maturai) at the beginning of the Christian era".  At least 27 of the poets were women. This article first appeared in the September 1999 issue of The Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies. They offer tinai rice with flowers, sacrificing goats, raising cock-flag and offering them to Murukan. According to David Shulman – a scholar of Tamil language and literature, the Tamil tradition believes that the Sangam literature arose in distant antiquity over three periods, each stretching over many millennia. This page is based on the Wikipedia article.  The earliest known mention of the Sangam legend, however, appears in Tirupputtur Tantakam by Appar in about the 7th century CE, while an extended version appears in the 12th-century Tiruvilaiyatal puranam by Perumparrap Nampi. Murukan here is referred to as Velan in Tirumurukarruppatai but not while referring to the other four Pataivitus. The texts of Pathinen, The Ettuthogai or the eight anthologies are, Pathupattu or ten Idylls collection includes. 4. But we do not know the number of Sangams or the period for which they were held. , Similar tiṇais pertain to puram poems as well, categories are sometimes based on activity: vetchi (cattle raid), vanchi (invasion, preparation for war), kanchi (tragedy), ulinai (siege), tumpai (battle), vakai (victory), paataan (elegy and praise), karanthai , and pothuviyal. valippattavali avan ikkeniyir puvai vankip Sangam Literature: The Sangam literature includes Tolkappiyam, Ettutogai, Pattuppattu, Pathinenkilkanakku, and two epics named – Silappathigaram and Manimegalai . Of these six, Kunrutoratal and Palamutircolai do not refer to any particular place. …, છે ?PLEASE, ANSWER ME IN GUJARATI, PLEASE DON'T GIVE UNNECESSARY ANSWER, PLEASE. Apart from Murukarruppatai, Tirupparankunram and Tirucciralaivay are mentioned elsewhere in Cankam literature. 243:2; Nar. Noted historians like Kamil Zvelebil have stressed that the use of 'Sangam literature' to describe this corpus of literature is a misnomer and Classical literature should be used instead. C Aka. [note 2] The Sangam literature is also referred sometimes with terms such as caṅka ilakkiyam or "Sangam age poetry". Wikipedia. ... leenamp3 is waiting for your help. According to Takanobu Takahashi, this compilation is as follows:, Sangam literature is broadly classified into akam (அகம், inner), and puram (புறம், outer). 2009 p.425 http://books.google.co.in/books?id=GW5Gx0HSXKUC&pg=PA425&lpg=PA425&dq=sangam+age+megaliths&source=bl&ots=QfSdEsT1Ga&sig=nfJPw5uzJf8bJn1OEBFdU52LCcY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NjWwUtziBoX8rAePiYDQDA&ved=0CCoQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=sangam%20age%20megaliths&f=false, Champakalakshmi.R, 'Archaeology and Tamil literary tradition.  The akam poetry uses metaphors and imagery to set the mood, never uses names of person or places, often leaves the context as well that the community will fill in and understand given their oral tradition. For example, in the Sangam era Ainkurunuru poem 202 is one of the earliest mentions of "pigtail of Brahmin boys". The third stage is the Paripatal type when there is no reference to Veriyattu but is a completely sanskritized form of worship of a vegetarian Murukan.  The sutras of the Tolkappiyam – particularly after sutra 315 – state the prosody rules, enumerating the 34 component parts of ancient Tamil poetry. Sangam literature reverberate the existence of the spirited and highly developed literary culture in time honoured Tamilakam. The Bhakti age had not dawned. consists of the Tholkappiyam, the Pathinen.  The later Sangam era poems follow the same general meter rules, but sometimes feature 5 lines (4-4-4-3-4). On the day Murukan was born, Intiran became his enemy and tried to destroy him with his Vaccirayutam Halics (vajrayudha). The real devotees desire only his blessings and devotion to him.  Of these, 16 poets account for about 50% of the known Sangam literature, with Kapilar – the most prolific poet – alone contributing just little less than 10% of the entire corpus. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromlech, Dolmens, Hero Stones and the Dravidian People. Of the six mentioned only four are places of permanent residence for Murukan, in temples-Tirupparankunram, Tirucciralaivay, Tiruvavinankuti and Tiruverakam. Kunrutoratal and Palamutircolai are places of Veriyattu spread out in all the boulders and their vicinities--malaiyum malaicarnta itamum. Three stages in the evolution of Murukan worship. They pray that all villages of the mountain region should have no hunger, no disease, and no enmity and should have plenty of rain and fertility. The Sangam Tamils are rightly famous for the remarkable literature they produced. He holds them in His twelve hands and appears majestic with them (Paripatal.5:55-70). A literal translation of Kuruntokai 119:, little-white-snake of lovely-striped young-body jungle elephant troubling like the young-girl sprouts-brightness toothed-female bangle(s) possessing hand(s)-female" – Translator: Kamil Zvelebil, English interpretation and translation of Kuruntokai 119:, As a little white snake with lovely stripes on its young body troubles the jungle elephant this slip of a girl her teeth like sprouts of new rice her wrists stacked with bangles troubles me.