Several other papers on PPy-MPcTS have been published [66, 87], although the majority of these has focused on the electrochemical properties of the films. For example, in addition to its use as a disinfectant, formic acid, the simplest carboxylic acid, is employed in textile treatment and as an acid reducing agent. Manufacturing of soaps need higher fatty acids. The inhibition mechanism was identified as mixed type, hindering both the cathodic and the anodic partial reactions. The potentiometric data recorded from diluted urine samples enabled the differentiation of samples from healthy and unhealthy people and the quantitative analysis of the sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, urate, and creatinine. In 1979, Diaz et al. The salts and esters of carboxylic acids are known as carboxylates. When administered intravenously, it treats the above-mentioned symptoms through immediate release formulation. A quantity of 2.60 g of glutamic acid was dissolved in 83.3 mL of warm deionized water. Multisensor systems for liquid analysis based on chemical sensor arrays that attempt to mimic the human chemical senses coupled with pattern recognition methods are widely known as E-tongues (Legin et al., 2002). In U.S. Pat. 13.6. A synthetic example is taken from a synthesis of stachybotrylactam by Kende and co-workers,23 in which aryl bromide 15 was treated with cuprous cyanide in hot DMF to give a 92% yield of aryl nitrile 16. In some instances a higher proportion of water may be employed to ensure that the carboxylic acid remains in solution. An amine base such as N-methylpyrrolidine is often added to facilitate the reaction. Regarding pharmaceutical applications, most reports focus on the use of potentiometric devices as taste-sensing tools for the development of pharmaceutical formulations. Finally, while elucidating an anomalous elimination of HCl, Dolbier and co-workers also reported that the thermolysis (650 °C) of 2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane produced relatively small amounts of 1,1-difluoroethylene <2002TL8075> (see Figure 7). This, in turn, renders conductivity detection difficult. Also, a RE must be included in the setup (eg, Ag/AgCl). Otero et al. A theoretical approach has been worked out that considers two-electron Coulomb and exchange interactions and, from which, selection rules may be derived and transfer rates estimated.38,99 Calculations of the quantum yield versus LMCT energy for EuIII complexes follow the model sketched on the left-hand side of Figure 7. A multichannel electronic interface device (eg, data-logger) that reads the sensor output, converts it to a digital signal and sends it to a computer. The E-tongue system was formed by two cylindrical sensor arrays (Fig. (4) separating the solid particles from the suspension, (5) washing the solid particles with anhydrous alcohol to remove residual water, unreacted carboxylic acid, and diluent, and. An advantage of the electrochemical methods is that the preparation process can be simply controlled through the current or the applied potential and the charge consumed. A variety of sensors, from optical to mass spectrometry-based, have been employed in the design of E-tongues, but the electrochemical devices are still the most common (Bagnasco et al., 2014), in particular potentiometric- and voltammetric-based devices. The "causticized" slurry material was then reacted with monochloroacetic acid, which purportedly would have caused formation of N-carboxymethyl chitosan according to the equation in column 8 line 35 of the patent, but it is acknowledged at column 7 lines 50-53, that the chitosan may have been substituted at other positions. (3) stirring the heterogeneous suspension for substantially one hour at room temperature. The pH of a 0.1% (w/v) aqueous solution of the salt was in the range 5.1-5.3 and its viscosity, measured with a Brookfield Viscometer, Spindle No. The use of impedimetric-based sensing strategies for biomedical applications is scarce compared to potentiometric or voltammetric bioinspired devices. Some additional properties for each of these salts are listed in Table 2 below, opposite their respective example number, including the pKa(s) of the parent acid, the pH of a 0.1% concentration (w/v) aqueous solution of the salt, and the viscosity in centipoises of such solution measured with a Brookfield Viscometer, Spindle No. E-tongue: mimicking the human chemical senses aiming to evaluate basic taste intensities. In a series of parallel reactions carried out as described in Part A of this example, the number of moles of acetic acid added to react with a fixed number of moles (0.01) of NOCC was varied between 0.001 and 0.006. Food industry uses many organic acids for the production of soft drinks, food products etc. 2: see also carboxylate ion G.-L. Song, D.H. StJohn, in Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys, 2011. In addition, the necessary dipolar nature of these ligands lends itself to multiphoton excitation, another advantage, particularly when it comes to luminescent bioprobes. Frequency of C=O absorption is lowered from the value found for the parent carboxylic acid because of resonance (more single-bond character).TITLE TEXTadd subtitle2019 (2015) described the application of an E-tongue as a taste sensor for the in vitro evaluation of diclofenac taste-masked orodispersible tablet formulations.  have studied the competitive doping of PPy during polymerization in an aqueous and acetonitrile solution of ClO−4 and copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate. Membranes were formed by deposition of the membrane solution on the silver conducting surface using a drop-by-drop technique. In this procedure, NOCC in solid form is suspended to form a slurry in an organic diluent water mixture to which is slowly added a known amount of carboxylic acid, generally 0.20-0.80, preferably 0.40 to 0.60 moles per mole of NOCC monomer units, the acid being dissolved in an organic diluent or water. For example, aliphatic mono- or di-basic acids or aromatic carboxylate acids, or the alkali metal, ammonium or amine salts can provide corrosion protection to magnesium when combined with a fluoride or a fluorocarboxylic acid or a salt . 199-214) and the O-carboxymethyl derivative and its preparation having being described, e.g. Gonzalo-Ruiz et al. The derivatives are ammonium salts made by acidifying a substantially neutral suspension of solid N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan in a diluent with an aqueous solution of the carboxylic acid. The cream was evaluated by a group containing young and mature volunteers who found it to approximate commercial skin care products in its effect, "feel", and ease of absorption. The addition of acid also causes the loss of viscosity to occur once a pH of 5 has been reached. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. For example, acentric, mixed-ligand CP [Zn(na)(ina)] (na = nicotinate) was obtained by the solvothermal reaction of 2-(2-pyridyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and ZnII salt, which could not be prepared by direct reaction of the ZnII salt with a 1:1 mixture of Hna and Hina under a similar reaction condition . 8.36) . The authors have found that an increase in the temperature favors polymer growth, which has been related to an overpotential decrease. It has also been claimed  that a combination of the above acids or salts with fluoro compounds can provide synergistic corrosion protection for magnesium, and an optional addition of a hydrocarbyl triazole and/or a thiazole to these combinations further improves the inhibition effect on copper and aluminium. In the first case, the model takes into account energy transfers between the ligand(s) and the EuIII ion and between the latter and the LMCT state only. Pyrolysis of fluorinated acid fluoride 42 also produced difluoroalkene 43, but again required very harsh conditions <1999JFC(94)65>. Glutamic and citric acids, being di- and tri-carboxylic acids respectively, have corresponding multiple pKa(s). Because the charge carrier concentration in a semiconductor (1014 to 1018 cm−3) is much lower than that in a conducting electrolyte (∼1020 cm−3 at 0.1 M), the charge space region of the contact is mainly formed on the semiconductor side. For example, FeII can be easily oxidized to FeIII by O2 in the air under the solvo(hydro)thermal condition, thus FeII CPs are hardly obtained. It is important that these organic compounds also offer corrosion protection to aluminium, iron, copper and solder that are normally used in a cooling system. Thermally induced extrusion of substituted aromatic carboxylates 36 has also been reported <1998JFC(89)31>.