He became a corresponding member of the Medical Surgical Academy in 1850 and of the Academy of Sciences of Petersburg in 1861. Thus Klaus entered the scientific and cultural circles of the city, and life became easier. In 1821 he married Ernestina Bate in Dorpat and they moved to Kazan, where he established his own pharmacy. If you have a question you can search for the answer below! His method was based upon the precipitation of double salts of ruthenium and the precipitation of ruthenium from its chloride solution by zinc. As before, he worked alone on the new material treating the samples with reagents and systematically studied the resultant sediments, filtrates and residues; he then repeated his investigations and compared the various batches. For questions about this page, please contact Steve Gagnon. Answers to life's questions, Why are Whale Sharks an Endangered Species, How Many Countries Make up the Commonwealth. In Hanau he made the acquaintance of W. C. Heraeus, who, like him, had been a pharmacist before starting his own business, and who was now the head of a small platinum workshop. Ruthenium was discovered in 1844 by Karl Karlovich Klaus who isolated it from crude platinum. The award to Klaus was not confirmed (“I could become very rich, but my striving for scientific education induced me to give up my excellent financial position and take a place as a laboratory assistant at the University in Dorpat” (7).) In 1844 Karl Karlovitch Klaus, then an unknown professor at the University of Kazan, reported his discovery of a new platinum metal which he named ruthenium, afer Ruthenia, the latinised name for Russia. They were later published (17–19). After establishing the characteristics and distribution of the “new body” and the accompanying platinoids, Klaus found ways of extracting the ruthenium. Platinum was recovered from the Ural placer deposits just one year after Emperor Alexander I had issued his edict of 1823, which instructed all mine managers to search for platinum and deliver it to St. Petersburg. The first brief announcement, and then fuller reports, about the discovery of ruthenium were sent to the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg and to Academician G. I. Gess, who reported them on September 13th and October 25th, 1844. Ruthenium is also obtained as a byproduct of the nickel mining operation in the Sudbury region of Ontario, Canada. Berzelius quickly examined the material that he had been sent and reported back to Klaus, who was then still an unknown professor, that it was just a dirty salt of iridium; a conclusion that Berzelius published immediately (24). By using our site, you agree to our use of cookies.Find out more in our Privacy Policy. He named the element Ruthenium, which was from the Latin word Ruthenia (the word was used to describe a region in Eastern Europe including Russia). It is one of the rarest elements on Earth and it is estimated that there are only 5,000 tonnes on the planet. Who discovered ruthenium? In the summer of 1840 Klaus travelled to St. Petersburg to obtain equipment. Klaus also identified some very reasonable problems: “Desiring to study the platinum group metals closely and to prepare their main compounds for the chemical cabinet of the Kazan University, I got two pounds of residue from Sobolevsky and started the work in 1841” (12). Varvinsky(1797–1838) who, as early as 1836, had melted platinum using an oxy-hydrogen flame (37), although his method did not attract any attention at the time. He also described some characteristics of the other platinum metals. “Platinum metals according to their likeness can be groupedin pairs :.. platinum and palladium, iridium and rhodium, osmium ruthenium. 628 Hofstadter Road, Suite 6Newport News, VA 23606, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is managed by, Jefferson Science Associates, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy. In 1846 the Academy of Sciences awarded him the Demidov Prize for the discovery of ruthenium. Here he was in charge of analytical chemistry. When he was four years old his father died, and the following year his mother,after a second marriage to another artist, also died, and “I found myself in the house of my hated stepfather” (1, 2). The Russian chemist Karl Karlovich Klaus established (1844) the existence of this rare, bright metal and retained the name his countryman Gottfried Wilhelm Osann had suggested (1828) for a platinum-group element whose discovery had remained inconclusive. However, Klaus was more interestedin the chemical characteristics of fusion, that is, the behaviour of the platinum metals and their admixtures during melting. Indeed, on account of his activity, a former student regarded him as quite a young man (14).Hedevoted himself totally to his labours but suffered greatly from the “endless work in the dense andharmful atmosphere” caused by osmium tetroxide fumes. Indeed, between the early 1930s and 1990s, there were around 400 papers published by them in Russia on ruthenium and other platinum metals, including 11 monographs. If you have ever wanted to know who discovered ruthenium, keep reading to find out. Finally, in the chapter “About Platinum Bases” Klaus showed the change in molecular characteristics after their co-ordination by a metal; for the first time he considered ammonium compounds “as compounds of the passive [co-ordi-nated] ammonium with metal oxides, where the ability for saturation depends on the metallic oxide” (32 ). A group of Russian scientists who devoted the greatest part of their research to studies of the chemistry of ruthenium. Here he worked hard in order to be able to start his own business. It is interesting to note that in 1838 the Academy of Sciences awarded K. H. Gebel and Klaus the most prestigious Russian prize for the natural sciences - the Demidov Prize - for their investigations of the flora of the steppes during their 1834 expedition. He had isolated the metal from platinum residues while working at Kazan University. Matthey,a devotee of the method of fusion, also had to recognise that this method could not be used in the case of platinum ore”, while on parting “Mr. Small amounts of ruthenium are added to platinum and palladium to strengthen them. From right to left: N. M. Sinitsyn, O. E. Zvyagintsev and V. N. Pitchkov. Evidently Klaus, perhaps with the help of Sobolevsky, met Count Egor Frantsevitch Kankrin (1775-1845) the Minister of Finance and obtained support for his research work. The residue he had obtained from Sobolevsky contained “in addition to 10% of platinum, quite a lot of iridium, osmium, some palladium and … a new body” (15). The report of this expedition, including some excellent illustrations by Klaus, were later published in Paris (4). After working as an assistant to a baker, Klaus left for St. Petersburg in 1811 where he became the pupil of a pharmacist. What's in a name? Klaus then went to Switzerland and later to Paris, visiting the works of Henri Saint-Claire Deville, Chapuis and H. K. Desmoutis and F. A. Quennessen. Careful observation and diligence enabled him to become proficient in the work required from a laboratory assistant: analysis, chemistry and pharmacy. Say what? To everybody’s surprise Klaus died of pneumonia on March 12th. He was able to obtain 6 grams of the metal from crude platinum. Ruthenium was the last of the six platinum group metals (platinum, palladium, rhodium, osmium, iridium and ruthenium) to be discovered. From the mid-1850s Klaus began to work on a “complete monograph on platinum metals” with sections on their history, chemistry, analysis and metallurgy. “my aim was not to discover … new bodies, but to prepare the compounds. Klaus took part in experimental fusions with Heraeus, and discussed with him the benefits and problems associated with fusion in the lime furnace, Klaus expressing his doubts about the universality of the method (39, 40). His knowledge, integrity and the wide choice of drugs and herbs he supplied ensured that his pharmacy gained a high repu-tation. Nearly 20 years before, however, Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried … But this is not all; in a nine page chapter on cyanic compounds, Klaus comes to a fundamental “unexpected” conclusion. In Paris, Yakobi conducted the fusion of 30 kg of platinumand obtained an iridium ingot weighing 1.8 kg (38). Karl Karlovitch Klaus was born on January 1 Ith, 1796 at Dorpat in what was then Russia (now knownas Tartu, in Estonia). At the same time Klaus sent samples of ruthenium and a copy of his report to Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779–1848) in Stockholm. Your email address will not be published. The Deville and Debray method of fusing platinum was started between 1857 and 1859 and appeared to offer an opportunity of manufacturing platinum articles more readily than the established “wet” methods of consolidation. Understanding the greatimportance of his experimental investigations, Klaus journeyed to the capital in July, 1842, where hereported the results of his experiments to Kankrin, and offered to extract the platinum from the residue by the method he had devised. Once there, however, he was entrusted with the management of the chemical laboratory, lecturing seven or eight times a week and conducting experiments in inorganic chemistry and the chemistry of plants and animals. By the way, I accidentally found out the presence of a new body, but I could not separate it at first” (13). In 1815 Klaus passed the examination for pharmacist's assistant, first class, at the famous Medical Surgical Academy. Ruthenium was discovered by Karl Karlovich Klaus, a Russian chemist, in 1844 while analyzing the residue of a sample of platinum ore obtained from the Ural mountains. Ruthenium was once thought to have been isolated by Polish chemist J?drzej ?niadecki in 1807.