An analysis of national per caput averages in 1971 disclosed a slight negative correlation between fuelwood consumption and income growth in Asia, but no discernible correlation in Africa and Latin America. Because between 30 to 50 percent of the heat value of wood is lost during conversion to charcoal, it may be more efficient to use fuelwood where transport distances are short and transport costs low. ² CE = coal equivalent: assumes one cubic metre of wood is equivalent to 0.33 ton of coal. It offers an opportunity to the various stakeholders to add knowledge, innovation, capital, and technology at each step or link in the value chain. FO:DP/NIR/64/516, Project working document, Samaru, Nigeria, FAO. The design of accurate sample surveys can be difficult when, as is the case here, very little is known about the pertinent characteristics of the population to be sampled. The principal noncommercial fuels other than wood are animal dung and crop residues. When a hydrocarbon fuel combusts, the C-H and C-C bonds are broken, and H-O and C=O bonds are formed instead. The renewable nature of the forest also offers potential for sustained output of wood for fuel, provided appropriate harvesting and management can be instituted before destruction reaches an irreversible point. In Tanzania, there was again no significant difference in average per caput consumption in the income groups covering the poorest 90 percent of the rural population, while in the highest income group it was 10 percent less. The most common types of traditional kilns are earth pit or mound kilns with efficiencies ranging between 8% and 12 % (Table 7). In recent studies of what volumes might be available for charcoal manufacture, estimates were arrived at of 100 200 m³/ha in tropical high forest in Surinam, 75 m³/ha in the Terai area in Nepal, 50 m³/ha in Ivory Coast and about 88 m³/ha in the cerrado region of Brazil. However, as the wood is burned, some of its energy is lost. Charcoal burns more cleanly than wood or dried biomass, producing higher temperatures and it is cheaper to transport and store. Charcoal is produced by partially burning wood. In Thailand, for example, it was found in 1972 that 57 percent came from cutting outside the forest and from wood residues. do not pay off as long as wood remains a free resource. The most important consequences of growing fuelwood shortages for millions of people is thus the progressive disappearance of the means to cook food and to ensure an essential minimum level of warmth. The problems of doing so are not just those of getting people to set aside land and to provide labour, but also to get acceptance of the concept that wood is no longer a "free good" to be gathered from the forest at will. Furthermore, evidence-based analyses of the charcoal value chain provide the opportunity to demonstrate the regional added value of charcoal production and thus help to sensitise policy makers for a source of energy hitherto neglected & left to the informal sector. the charcoal business is dominated by a few powerful individuals. Moreover, use tends to vary with the season of the year. basically when you touch it it cools off. Worldwide charcoal production has increased, rising by an annual 3.7% from 1990 to reach 44 million tones in 2000 (see: FAO (2008), Forests and Energy (pdf)). For example, if one converts wood to charcoal using a traditional kiln (with efficiency of 8%) and then burns that charcoal on a traditional stove (with efficiency of 20%), there is a resulting energy loss of 73%. The fuel BTUs of wood is lower than coal meaning you will have to use more wood to get the same heat BTUs than if you used coal for forging. This also holds true for any investments in natural forest management. Further information on biomass charcoal briquetting for energy based income generation in rural areas can be found in the booklet Biomass Charcoal Briquetting.The GIZ Program to promote rural electrification and a sustainable supply of domestic fuel (PERACOD) in Senegal documented their experience at the Peracod website. Wood fuels account for two thirds of all energy other than human and animal energy used in Africa, for nearly one third in Asia, for one fifth in Latin America, and for 6 percent in the Near East. Significant subsidies (e.g. Charcoal produced from hardwood is heavy and strong, whereas produced from softwood is soft and light. J.E.M. TABLE 1. On the basis of the latest information available and some recent household surveys, the total annual output and use of all wood for fuel in the developing countries is estimated to reach 1200 million m³ (Table 1). In a study in Indonesia it was found that on the usual types of fuelwood stove 94 percent of the heat value of the wood was wasted. These furnaces industrially produce renewable energy, namely a charcoal whose fixed carbon content is > 82% because the technology makes it possible to control the carbonization temperature at the heart of the furnace; "MAGE" technology requires 30% less wood than traditional methods to obtain the same amount of charcoal, and kilns make it possible to recover industrial and forest wood waste; This technology, unlike pyrolysis for example, does not need external energy input to cook the wood; The furnace is filled with pre-cut woods chips in 10*5*5 cm, which avoids breaking the pieces of charcoal after charring, increasing productivity by +30%; The wood is inflamed from the top and it will ignite to the bottom thanks to the air circulation; the air vents located under the furnace are then closed once all the wood is on fire ; A complete carbonization cycle lasts between 20 and 24 hours, depending on the moisture content of the wood; Carbonization is broken down into 3 phases: endothermy, then exothermic and finally again endothermy; Furnaces work 10 years and are 100% recyclable; The fixed carbon quality obtained preserves the health of consumers (colorectal cancer); A factory of 10 furnaces can be installed on a site of only 10,764 sq m; it generates about 40,000 carbon credits over the year; This page was last modified on 24 July 2019, at 08:45.